In western philosophy, Pythagoras was the first to demonstra

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In western philosophy, Pythagoras was the first to demonstrate deductive reasoning with his Pythagorean Theorem. One hundred years later Plato attempted to illustrate deductive reasoning in his book Sophists. It was Aristotle, Plato’s student who would later solve the logical argument of deductive reasoning. Aristotle’s deductive theory concluded if something is true for a group of items in general then it is also true for all members of that group. Aristotelian deductive reasoning held strong for two-thousand years before it was challenged by Sir Francis Bacon’s theory of inductive reasoning.Deductive reasoning is a top-down approach that starts with a premise supported by other affirmations to reach a specific conclusion. This is more like a quantitative approach to the scientific. Taking into consideration larger amounts of generalized, observations, facts, and data then narrowing it down to a definitive answer supported by the information. The scientific method uses deductive reasoning to test hypotheses and theories by examining those possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.Sir Francis Bacon believed the best way to arrive at the truth was to make repeated observations and then come to a generalize conclusion as to what was learned. Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning and takes on a bottom-up approach by looking at specific observations and then making a more generalized conclusion. This process is similar to a qualitative analysis in that it is more probabilistic and is more easily proven wrong. Several attempts and observation may be required to arrive at the correct answer. Inductive reasoning is used to develop hypothesis and theories rather that prove them.John Dewey’s double-movement of reflection is more a research methodology than a scientific method. This is the way this student has conducted research for more than 40 years and in my opinion the only way that truth can be definitively known. Starting with a premise, then researching, reading, collecting data, studying, contemplating, more research, reading, listening to lectures, watching documentaries, back to studying and reflection, and on and on. In this process reflection is not just the sequence of ideas, but a process of gaining insight, while each turn moves forward in understanding and reflecting back to contemplate previous portions. The reflective thought grows out of one another and supports one another (Dewey, 1910). Throughout this process, the researcher’s and others biases will become apparent. It becomes easy to recognize the hidden meaning between the lines and information and understanding will coalesce until that aha moment when the truth is known. Only then should the researcher set their hypothesis, write their theory, and present their ideas with the hope and aspiration of starting the scientific process to prove the truth. Abductive reasoning is a form of scientific reasoning often used by medical doctors who make a diagnosis based on test results. It doesn’t fit in with inductive or deductive reasoning but can be useful for forming hypotheses. Please answer the above question with at least 150-250 words and using at least 1 reference. Reference needs to be from a peer reviewed article or journal and needs to be cited in APA 6th edition format. Also, of applicable, please provide www or doi website info for reference.

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